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Oak Trees: Citation Examples

Examples of In-Text Citations and References

You need to cite where your information came from in the body of your paper (in-text / parenthetical citations) AND on a References page at the end of your paper.

You will have an in-text citation and a corresponding full citation on your References page for each source you use.

In-text citations and references work together. 

  • In-text citations are brief and appear in the sentences you write in your paper.
  • References are longer and appear as a list in the back of your paper.

Examples of in-text citations using the same source.

“If an individual is strongly attached to someone, he cares what that person thinks of him and will, therefore, not want to do anything to disappoint that person" (Payne & Salotti, 2007, p. 555.)

It has been suggested that individuals with strong attachments to peers, parents, and their school are less likely to engage in criminal behavior (Payne & Salotti, 2007, p. 555).

Payne and Salotti (2007) suggest that if an individual has strong attachments to peers, parents, and their school, they are less likely to engage in criminal behavior (p. 555).

Example of how this source would appear on your list of references


Payne, A. & Salotti, S. (2007). A comparative analysis of social learning and social control theories in the prediction of college crime. Deviant Behavior28(6), 553–573. doi:10.1080/01639620701357933

Citation Examples from APA Quick Guide (WCC)

Journal, Magazine or Newspaper article from a library database with a DOI

Sigurdson, J. F., Undheim, A. M., Wallander, J. L., Lydersen, S., & Sund, A. M. (2015). The long-term effects of being bullied or a bully in adolescence on externalizing and internalizing mental health problems in adulthood. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry & Mental Health, 9(1), 1–13.

Parenthetical citation: (Sigurdson et al., 2015)

Narrative citation: Sigurdson et al. (2015)


Journal, Magazine or Newspaper article from a library database without a DOI

Voelker, T., Love, L., & Pentina, I. (2012). Plagiarism: What don’t they know? Journal of Education for Business, 87(1), 36–41.

Parenthetical citation: (Voelker et al., 2012)

Narrative citation: Voelker et al. (2012)


eBook found in the Library Catalog

Hoyt, K. (2012). Long shot: Vaccines for national defense. Retrieved from

Parenthetical citation: (Hoyt, 2012, p. 45)

Narrative citation: (Hoyt, 2012)

Examples of In-text Citations for Numbers of Authors

In-text citation for:

       One author (Luna, 2020)

       Two authors (Salas & D’Agostino, 2020)

       Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020)

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