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PSYCH109 - Developmental Psychology - Childhood - Palmieri: Citing and Plagiarism

Citing Your Sources

You will be using APA format for your paper. *You do not need to include a cover page and abstract as you see in APA guidelines.

When you are ready to cite the sources you have used for your research, visit the library's homepage to find sources that will help you cite in APA format. It will offer example citations for the most common source types.  

Even if you use a citation maker (EasyBib, NoodleTools etc) you must still check your citations again the APA guide to make sure they are 100% correct.

If you need help, ask a librarian or submit your question to Ask us anything!

Many of the databases are provided through the EBSCO platform. EBSCO is not the name of a database. Look for the name above the search box to use in your citations.

Citation Examples

You need to cite where your information came from in the body of your paper (in-text/parenthetical citations) AND on a References page at the end.


APA In-text:

A survey of high school football coaches showed that 70 to 90% would send a player showing signs of a concussion to a healthcare professional before permitting them to return to play (Guilmette, et al., p. 1043).

For 3 or more authors cite first author only and et al.: (Wasserstein et al., 2007, p. 87).

For 2 authors: (Bassert & Thomas, 2013, p. 72). *note use of ampersand


A study by Guilmette, et al., (2007) shows that most high school football coaches (70 to 90%) would require a player showing signs of a concussion to be seen by a healthcare professional before returning to play (p. 1043).

Bassert and Thomas (2013) have demonstrated that....

*note use of & in parenthetical citation, but and in signal phrase. 


APA References Page:

*List all authors up to first 19 and final author.

Guilmette, T. J., Malia, L. A., and McQuiggan, M. D. (2007) Concussion understanding and management among New England high school football coaches. Brain Injury, 21(10), 1039-1047. doi:10.3109/02699051003648227

APA states that database names and DOI numbers are optional (handbook p. 192), but adding them are good practice and will make it easier to track down your sources again. 


APA examples:

Chapter in an electronic book (*do not add period after URL or DOI)

Bilotta, E., & Evans, G. W. (2012). Environmental stress. In L. Steg, A. van den Berg, J. de Groot (Eds.), Environmental psychology: An introduction (pp. 28-35). Retrieved from

Print Book

Bradshaw, J. (2013). The behaviour of the domestic cat. Boston: CABI International.

Print journal, (with issue, no volume)

Iyoob, I., Rossetti, M. D., & Chen, Y. (2013). Cloud computing clarity: What every IE needs to know about the newest software paradigm. Industrial Engineer, (4), 32-7.

Online article with DOI

Jackson, J. J., & Samuel, T. S. (2001). The impact of climate change on sea levels. Journal of Environmental Science55(4), 233-277. doi:10.1070/8567-6582.33.5.888 

AI Generated Text

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

APA Tips:

Authors: Last Name, First initial : Bradshaw, J.

Multiple Authors: Separate with commas, use comma & before last author: Iyoob, I., Rossetti, M. D., & Chen, Y.

Put year of publication in parentheses (2016) use (n.d.) if no date found. Use (year, month day) if information available.

Titles: Put titles (books, articles websites) in ‘sentence case’ – only capitalize first word (and first word after any punctuation) and proper nouns: Environmental psychology: An introduction

BUT capitalize journal titles: Journal of Environmental Science

Italicize book and journal titles: Journal of Environmental Science

Journals: Volume (in italics) followed by issue (in parentheses) no space between: 55(4)

Online sources: Use DOI (if available) or Retrieved from URL Do not add a period at the end of the DOI or the URL doi:10.1070/8567-6582.33.5.888 or Retrieved from



Don't forget to cite images on your presentation!

APA format: Lastname, FirstInitial. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title. Retrieved from URL

If no author/creator: Title. (Year, Month Day of publication). Retrieved from URL

Avoid Plagiarism

Plagiarism occurs when you use another person's verbal or written words or text in your own work without appropriately documenting the source of the borrowed words or text. The borrowed text could come from a variety of places, such as a book, a newspaper, a magazine, a website, or even another student's paper.

The WCC Academic Honesty Policy states:

Plagiarism is the act of presenting another person’s ideas, research, or writing as your own.  Examples include:

  1. Copying another person’s actual words without both the use of quotations and documentation.

  2. Presenting another person’s ideas or theories in your own words without documentation.

  3. Using information that is not considered common knowledge without acknowledging the source.

  4. Using a paper writing “service” or having a friend write the paper for you.


Note:  The guidelines that define plagiarism also apply to information secured on internet websites.  Internet references must specify precisely where the information was obtained and where it can be found. 

You may think that citing another author’s work will lower your grade.  In some unusual cases this may be true, if your instructor has indicated that you must write your paper without reading additional material.  But in fact, as you progress in your studies, you will be expected to show that you are familiar with important work in your field and can use this work to further your thinking.  Your professors write this kind of paper all the time.  The key to avoiding plagiarism is that you show clearly where your own thinking ends and someone else’s begins.


No matter where the text comes from, it must be documented accurately. Accurate documentation means that you must follow the MLA (Modern Language Association) or APA (American Psychological Association) rules for documentation.

APA In-Text Citations

Video from the folks at Humber Libraries, giving detailed examples of various in-text (parenthetical) citations in APA format. Please note video examples for multiple authors is missing final comma (before & / and): e.g should be (Tally, Dalfen, & Weir, p. 38)

Additional Citation Help

The above video will show you how to set up your paper in APA format in Word (how to insert a running page header etc).

WCC Writing Centers

While the librarians can help you find sources for your paper, visit the Writing Center (part of the Academic Support Center) for help with writing and structuring your thoughts on paper.

The virtual tutoring services thru ZOOM are offered Monday thru Friday 10:00 AM – 3:00 PM.  Students who are enrolled in Online Synchronous/ Asynchronous classes will have the priority when scheduling virtual tutoring appointments.

Request a virtual appointment or call them at (914) 606-7853.

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