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Prof. Alammar - Eng. 101 FALL 2021: Citation: Why Cite? / Elements of an MLA 8 Citation

Common Elements of a Citation

9 Common Core Elements

Rather than give strict format rules for different types of sources, the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook identifies 9 "core elements" common to most sources and provides flexible guidelines on how to reference them in your Works Cited list.

(Commas separate details of the "container" or master work until all details are exhausted.)

Why We Cite

‚ÄčWhen you write a research paper, you use information and facts from a variety of resources to support your own ideas to develop new ones. You cite these sources for the following reasons:

  • To Give Credit

Giving credit to the source acknowledges experts and scholars for their contribution.

  • To Establish Credibility

Citations build credibility because they demonstrate how much you have read and learned, including sources from competing and multiple viewpoints. It will be apparent to your reader that your ideas are well supported. 

  • To Help the Reader

Citations can guide your readers to more information about your topic. 

  • To Participate in the Conversation

Your work contributes to ongoing intellectual conversations. 


November 17, 201

Author Last Name, First Name.

Binfet, John-Tyler.

“Title of Article.”

“Reducing University Students’ Stress through a Drop-in Canine-Therapy Program.” 

Journal Title,

Journal of Mental Health,

Volume, Number,

vol. 27, no. 3,

Publication Date,

June 2018,


pp. 197–204. 


Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collections,

doi or URL (minus https://).


Binfet, John-Tyler. “Reducing University Students’ Stress through a Drop-in

        Canine-Therapy Program.” Journal of Mental Health, vol. 27, no. 3, June 2018,

        pp. 197–204. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collections,


In-text (Binfet 199).

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