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HIST. 111 - U.S. 19th Century History - Prof. Vecchio - FALL 2022: Citation: Elements of a Citation / Citation Help

Common Elements of a Citation

9 Common Core Elements

Rather than give strict format rules for different types of sources, the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook identifies 9 "core elements" common to most sources and provides flexible guidelines on how to reference them in your Works Cited list.

(Commas separate details of the "container" or masterwork until all details are exhausted.)

Why We Cite

When you write a research paper, you use information and facts from a variety of resources to support your own ideas to develop new ones. You cite these sources for the following reasons:

  • To Give Credit to the source by acknowledging experts and scholars for their contribution.
  • To Establish Credibility by demonstrating to your reader that your ideas are well supported. 
  • To Help the Reader by guiding them to more information about your topic.
  • To Help Researchers Organize and Share Information in a Standardized Way

Citation Help

Noodle Tools

The library provides access to NoodleTools, a reference management tool that helps generate accurate MLA and APA citations. Noodle can also help you:

  • Cite, archive and evaluate sources.
  • Organize notes, quotations, and create an outline.
  • Get help with difficult citations.
  • Collaborate in real-time from anywhere.

Noodle can be accessed for free from on- or off-campus: Current students, faculty and staff may Activate Noodle Accounts*. *On campus only.

If you would like to activate Noodle Tools from off-campus location, please email, chat with or visit the library in person to obtain your password.

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